Overseas Trained Teachers: Adjusting to living and working in New Zealand

Published: 19 Jun 2020
Audience:
Academics
Education
Schools
Topics:
Wellbeing
Teaching
New Zealand Curriculum
Pedagogy
Te Ihuwaka | Education Evaluation Centre

Summary

This report highlights the experiences of teachers who have come from overseas to teach in New Zealand. We evaluated how Overseas trained teachers (OTTs), and principals who hired them, feel they have adapted to living and working in New Zealand.

New Zealand has a high demand for teachers in schools that can’t be met with local teachers. In mid-2018, the New Zealand Government announced a package to meet the rising demand for teachers. Since 2018, 543 OTTs had been hired through this package. We wanted to find out how the OTTs have adapted to living and working in New Zealand.

We surveyed teachers and principals

We collected data from voluntary surveys of overseas trained teachers and principals. We used online surveys, following a case study in October 2019. We used two separate surveys to gather the perspectives of OTTs and principals. We asked them about their experiences in the 12 months up to September 2019. We also used data from an earlier focus group with OTTs.

The survey findings are not generalisable because it is not known whether the OTTs who responded to the survey are representative of all OTTs in New Zealand. However, the findings reveal common themes.

What we found

Almost all principals hired an OTT due to a shortage of New Zealand applicants. The second most common reason principals hired an OTT was for a specific skillset.

OTTs found aspects of the hiring process challenging

The salary assessment was often the most difficult part of the hiring process, followed by registration and certification. Other OTTs commented that extensive requirements for documents made applying difficult. This included physically sending the original documents from their home country. Gathering documents could be costly, and so could getting their qualifications assessed through NZQA’s International Qualification Assessment.             

Principals and OTTs needed more support

Too many OTTs were missing out on professional development because they weren’t aware of the opportunities on offer.

Most OTTs adjusted well to teaching in New Zealand

They appreciated the benefits of teaching in New Zealand, especially the flexibility of the curriculum. However, not all OTTs found adjusting to the curriculum’s expectations easy. Forty-four percent of OTTs were familiar with teaching a more prescriptive curriculum.

OTTs enjoyed working with learners, but were challenged by behavioural and cultural norms. Some OTTs did not fully understand the implications of the Treaty of Waitangi and Tikanga Maori on their teaching practice    

How government agencies can support OTTs more

We made suggestions on how government agencies could better support principals and OTTs. These suggestions are summarised below.

  • Enhancing how government agencies coordinate and communicate processes
  • Increasing OTT’s awareness of and access to professional development opportunities
  • Ensuring support is specific to the New Zealand context and responds to OTT’s needs
  • Improving support provided to schools for inducting OTTs and helping them settle in

Whole article:

Overseas Trained Teachers: Adjusting to living and working in New Zealand

Purpose

This report serves to shine some light on the experiences of teachers who have come from overseas to teach in New Zealand. It is based on data collected from a voluntary survey of teachers and principals of the school where they are employed. The report also draws on data collected from a prior ERO case study.

Context

There is a teacher shortage in the New Zealand workforce. This is a result of a rise in demand for teachers in schools and an inability to meet that demand with local teachers. In 2018, the Ministry of Education (the Ministry) estimated that 850 extra teachers were needed in 2019 to address this rising level of demand, driven by a ‘forecasted growth in the number of students in schools’. The  Ministry’s  2019 report notes that These trends are what we would anticipate when the supply of prospective new teachers has decreased, whilst demand for teachers has remained static or grown.

A range of factors contribute to the limited supply of teachers. Enrolments in Initial Teacher Education fell between 2010 and 2016. Although the number of teachers in the primary sector has remained relatively stable, fewer secondary teachers have been entering the workforce over the past 10-15 years

New Zealand has long relied on international teacher mobility to address shortages in teacher supply, most notably in subjects such as science and mathematics. Over the past several decades, New Zealand has relied on overseas born and overseas trained teachers (OTTs). The annual average of OTTs for the 2010-2019 decade was 611. In 2019 alone, Immigration New Zealand approved visas for 948 teachers (Retrieved from the Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment’s Migration Data Explorer. The 948 teachers include those applying for or renewing work and residence visas. The figure is not a count of unique individuals applying for the first time ever. As a result, this figure may include double counting of individuals and does not reflect annual net inflows). Demand for teachers in New Zealand primary and secondary schools continues to exceed supply.

In mid-2018, the New Zealand Government (the Government) announced a package of teacher supply initiatives (the initiatives) to meet the immediate and rising demand for teachers. This package included sourcing qualified OTTs. Schools could recruit their OTTs directly, or through a recruitment agency. The Ministry set a target to recruit 400 OTTs for 2019/2020, and 300 for 2020/2021. These targets were set by budget year, which run from 1 July to 30 June.

To speed up the acquisition and acclimatisation process, recruitment focused on teachers from countries with similar teaching qualifications to New Zealand. These countries included: the United Kingdom, Ireland, Canada, South Africa, Australia and Fiji. To help reach the recruitment targets, the Ministry enlisted three recruitment agencies to support schools to recruit teachers. These recruitment agencies were Randstad Education, Education Personnel and Oasis Recruitment. In early 2019 the Ministry indicated 1000 qualified overseas teachers had been screened and made available for schools to interview.

To work and live in New Zealand OTTs need to meet requirements of four government agencies. These are:

  • Immigration New Zealand (Immigration):
    issues permanent and temporary visas, such as those in the following categories: Skilled Migrant Category (residence), Working Holiday Scheme, and Essential Skills (temporary work).
  • New Zealand Qualifications Authority (NZQA):
    assesses OTTs’ teaching and other qualifications.
  • Teaching Council of Aotearoa New Zealand (Teaching Council):
    registers and issues practising certificates to OTTs.
  • Education Payroll Limited (Payroll):
    undertakes salary assessments to place OTTs on the relevant pay scale/step.

These four agencies and the Ministry formed a cross-agency, overseas recruitment working group to support OTTs through the processes they had to undertake.

Since 2018, 543 OTTs have been appointed to teaching positions in 236 schools through the appointed recruitment agents(as at 21st January 2020). Of these, 360 teachers were recruited in 2019(This number is for the academic year of 2019) While 948 teachers were approved for a visa in 2019, 720 were approved for temporary work visas, and the remainder were for permanent residence. It is unlikely that newly recruited teachers were granted residence in the first year. Due to lack of information on unique first-time arrivals and possible double counting of individuals, it is likely that the 360 teachers recruited in 2019 were a considerable part of the temporary visas approved in 2019.

Of the 543 recruited from overseas, the highest number of OTTs came from South Africa (38 percent), followed by the United Kingdom (29 percent). The remainder of OTTs came from 16 other source countries.

OTTs coming to New Zealand are entitled to apply for an overseas relocation grant of up to $5000. Schools can also apply for a finder’s grant of up to $3000, for any costs incurred in recruiting an overseas teacher. Since 2018, and as at 17 February 2020, the Ministry had approved 408 school finder’s fee applications.

The Teaching Council will define most OTTs as Provisionally Certificated Teachers (PCTs). The requirements are different for Australian OTTs. Through the Trans-Tasman Mutual Recognition Act Australian OTTs can apply for full registration and a full practicing certificate in New Zealand, if they hold the equivalent in Australia, in which case no induction or mentoring period is required.

OTTs can apply for their full practising certification after two years of mentoring and induction. Support from a mentor is required for PCTs to move to a full practising certificate. Up to one year of mentoring overseas can be considered as part of the two years, subject to suitable evidence being approved by the Teaching Council.

Boards of Trustees receive teacher-specific staffing allowances to support PCTs. These include the overseas, beginning and retrained teacher time allowance. The allowance is added to the school’s bulk grant, and is calculated on fulltime teacher equivalency (FTTE). All PCTs receive a time allowance for support but, depending on the category they fall under, this time allowance varies. An overseas trained teacher is eligible for a shorter time allowance than a beginning teacher. However, the Teaching Council states that an OTT may be classified as a beginning teacher, even if they have taught elsewhere, and so they are eligible for the beginning teacher time allowance. In contrast to the beginning and retrained teacher time allowances, not only is the time allowance for overseas teachers shorter, it is also affected by the type of school they are in (see Figure 1). Boards of trustees can apply for extended time allowance for their OTTs depending on the length of mentoring time the OTT requires.

Figure 1: The OTT time allowance is lower than for beginning teachers.

Time allowance for:

Primary, intermediate and special schools

Secondary and composite schools

Overseas trained teacher

(For OTTs who are not eligible for the beginning teacher time allowance)



0.1 FTTE (for up to 10 weeks)



0.1 FTTE (for up to 20 weeks)

Retrained teacher

0.2 FTTE for 1 year

0.2 FTTE for 1 year

Beginning teacher (first year)

0.2 FTTE for up to 1 year

0.2 FTTE for up to 1 year

Beginning teacher (second year)

0.1 FTTE for up to 1 year

0.1 FTTE for up to 1 year

While the school receives an allowance for the teacher, mentor teacher allowance is paid directly to the mentor teachers.

The Ministry has funded a range of Professional Learning and Development (PLD) opportunities for OTTs through the University of Otago. Three workshops were offered in 2019 and 2020 which included content about Te Reo Māori, Tikanga Māori, culturally responsive teaching and developing and designing learning within The New Zealand Curriculum (The NZC). OTTs can also access online modules and webinars.

The online module content also included an introduction to Te Reo and Tikanga Māori, culturally responsive pedagogy, The NZC and guidance about how to gain a full practising certificate. OTTs could also attend an ‘Introduction to teaching in Aotearoa/New Zealand’ day. The timing of this day meant it was only available to those who began teaching in their school in February.

Why ERO undertook this evaluation

The teaching workforce is one of the strategic focus areas in ERO’s national evaluations, recently explored through Newly Graduated Teachers (NGTs): Preparation and Confidence to Teach (2017). It is important to continue to monitor and evaluate initiatives designed to enhance the teaching workforce and to provide system- level information to support prioritisation, action and improvement.

As of 2018, 543 OTTs have been recruited through the initiative. So it is timely to evaluate how OTTs, and principals who have hired an OTT, feel they have adapted to living and working in New Zealand. This survey was intended to help as an early process evaluation.

In August 2019, prior to undertaking the surveys, ERO visited a school where more than half of the staff were OTTs. Interviews with that school’s leaders and OTTs captured their experiences with the recruitment and placement phases of the process. This report also draws on findings from that case study.

Evaluation question

The key evaluative question was:

How well did overseas trained teachers adapt to working and living in New Zealand?

The purpose of undertaking this evaluation was to understand the experience of OTTs, and principals who had hired an OTT. To capture the views of both groups, this evaluation sought to explore:

  • the experience of principals and OTTs with the recruitment process
  • the support offered to OTTs
  • the extent to which each group felt OTTs adjusted to working and living in New Zealand.

Five sub-evaluation questions (see Figure 2) were used to understand the principals’ and OTTs’ experience within the recruitment, support and the placement/post-placement phases.

Figure 2: Sub-evaluation questions for OTTs and principals

Phase

OTT

Principal

Recruitment

How well did the recruitment process work for the OTT?

Why did principals choose to hire an OTT, and what was their level of involvement in the process?

Placement and Post-placement

How effective was the support offered to OTTs?
 

To what extent had OTTs adjusted to working and living in NZ?

How effective was the support offered to OTTs?

To what extent did principals perceive their OTTs had adapted to working in New Zealand?

How ERO undertook this evaluation

This evaluation was undertaken primarily through online surveys following the earlier case study in October 2019. Two separate surveys were used to gather the perspectives of OTTs and the principals of schools who had recruited those OTTs in the 12 months prior to September 2019 (see Appendix 1 for survey questions posed for each group). In the single- school case study more than half of the staff were OTTs. Using such an outlier meant ERO could surface a range of issues they had experienced. Using the case study enabled ERO to make analytical generalisations.

The survey design originally aimed for statistical generalisability which required a representative sample better achieved through an opt-out process. However, in the absence of access to a sampling frame (e.g. population of schools with recently recruited OTTs) from which to draw a simple random sample, in September 2019 ERO emailed every principal of state and integrated, English medium schools (N=2322).  This meant adopting an opt-in consent method which, while preferred from an ethics perspective, could also result in lower response rates and biased samples.

The email asked principals to:

  • indicate whether they had hired a new to New Zealand teacher in the past 12 months. Principals were asked about new to New Zealand teachers, and OTTs responses on where they had taught and received their qualification were checked to determine if they met the criteria of being an OTT.
  • forward the email to any of their new to New Zealand teachers to complete a survey.

Of the 2322 principals emailed, 753 (32 percent) indicated whether they had hired (or not) a new to New Zealand teacher. Of these principals who responded, 168 (22 percent of principals) had hired a teacher who was new to New Zealand in the past 12 months.

Characteristics of the survey respondents and generalisability

As noted above, the survey methodology chosen could not include a representative sample and therefore the findings are not strictly generalisable. The survey findings do, however, provide a sense of emergent themes.

OTT survey responses were collected in the last three weeks of Term 3 2019, and came from 90 different schools. Since the survey respondents confirmed that they had arrived in the previous 12 months, since September 2018, it is assumed that most of these OTTs would overlap with the 360 OTTs recruited in 2019.

ERO received responses from 143 OTTs of which 69 (48 percent) had used a recruitment agency. If we were to use 360 recruited in 2019 as the denominator, the achieved sample response rate is 19 percent.

The only other variable known from the administrative data is the source country the OTTs had come from. The closest variable in the survey data was the country where respondents had taught the longest. For almost all OTTs, the country they had taught the longest was where they received their teaching training (Refer to Appendix 2 for clarification on the terms used in this report to describe quantity).  Forty-six percent of the sample had taught the longest in South Africa. The second highest group had taught the longest in the United Kingdom (23 percent). The remaining OTTs had taught the longest in a range of countries. Fortunately, the composition of this achieved sample is broadly similar to reported proportions (South Africa 38 percent, the United Kingdom 29 percent) of OTTs who have entered New Zealand through the initiatives.

There was an even mix of respondents with bachelor’s degrees, postgraduate diplomas and honours/master’s level qualifications. Most OTTs (76 percent) were between 25 and 39 years old. Seventy-two percent of respondents were female.

Over half of the OTTs (52 percent) who responded were teaching in Auckland schools. Other OTTs taught in 13 of New Zealand’s regions. There were no respondents from the Tasman and Nelson regions. More than half of OTTs taught in primary schools, and almost one-third in secondary schools. Eight OTTs were based in special schools.

A full breakdown of the characteristics of schools OTTs belonged to, and their responses to the survey, can be found in Appendix 3.

The 168 principals who indicated they hired a new to New Zealand teacher in the past 12 months were contacted to complete a principal’s survey. This survey received 53 responses. Over half of these principals (53 percent) had hired one OTT, and the remaining 47 percent had hired two or more OTTs. Thirty-three principals (62 percent) had hired at least one OTT through a recruitment agency. This equates to 14 percent of principals who have hired an OTT through recruitment agencies since 2018. Nearly half of the principals were in Auckland region schools. There were ten other regions represented. Most principals were from primary schools, and one-fifth from secondary. Four were principals of special schools.

A full breakdown on the characteristics of schools that principals belonged to and their responses to the survey can be found in Appendix 4.

Findings

The themes identified in the preliminary case study were substantiated in the survey phase of the investigation.

Almost all principals recruited an OTT due to a shortage of applicants from New Zealand

Ninety-eight percent of principals (who responded to the survey) chose to hire their OTT(s) due to a shortage of applicants from New Zealand.

"We had no New Zealand trained teachers apply to our last advertisement in the Education Gazette last year. However, we did have 35 overseas applicants."
Principal

The second most common reason principals chose to hire an OTT was for a specific skillset. Forty-six principals identified this as a reason for choosing to hire an OTT. All secondary and special school principals hired an OTT for a specific skillset, compared to only 32 percent of primary school principals. While ERO did not ask principals what this specific skillset was, three-quarters of OTTs who had been hired into a secondary school indicated they taught a science, technology, engineering or mathematics (STEM) subject.

Seventy percent of principals signalled they intended to hire additional OTTs in the next 12 months.

Aspects of the recruitment process were challenging for OTTs

Most OTTs found interactions with their school and recruitment agency (if they had used one) the easiest part of their recruitment process. Of the OTTs who had used a recruitment agency, 81 percent found this part of the process easy. Not all OTTs were employed matching their proficiency and expertise to the most appropriate vacancy. For example, in the case study, several specialist subject teachers were teaching as generalists across the entire curriculum and at year levels they had not previously taught.

Eighty-seven percent found interactions with their school easy (see Figure 3). OTTs appreciated when interviewers from their school helped them to feel comfortable, and when follow-up communication was timely.

Fewer OTTs found interactions with the four government agencies easy. The extensive documentation requirements and the time- consuming nature of applications were the most identified challenges with these agencies. The salary assessment process (through Payroll) was identified as being the most difficult part of the recruitment process. Just over half of OTTs found the Teaching Council registration and certification process was not easy.

The qualification assessment (through NZQA) was the government agency process which the most OTTs found easy, followed by the visa application (through Immigration).

Figure 3: Over half of OTTs found the registration and salary assessment processes difficult

The graph shows six aspects of the recruitment process, and how easy OTTs found each part of the process.

The graph shows six aspects of the recruitment process, and how easy OTTs found each part of the process. How ‘easy’ the process was is split into ‘Very easy + Easy’ and ‘Not easy + Not at all easy’. The graph is ordered from easiest part of the process, to least easy.
The order of the ease of the recruitment process was ‘Job application with school’ (87%); ‘Application to recruiter’ (81%); ‘Qualification assessment’ (67%); Visa application (59%); ‘Registration and certificate’ (49%); ‘Salary Assessment’ ‘36%’

OTTs appreciated when agencies responded promptly to their applications and follow-up on queries or further requirements.

"It took me 5 months to get my teaching qualification which is much longer with what was expected but the people in the Teaching Council are very accommodating and respond really fast."
OTT

OTTs valued when their teaching qualification was on NZQA’s list of pre- approved overseas teaching qualifications, which sped up the process for them. These OTTs considered the qualification assessment straightforward.

“Due to my university being on the pre-approved list, I found the process easier.”
OTT

Other OTTs commented that extensive documentation requirements made their application difficult. For example, OTTs had commented they needed to get original documents physically sent from their home country. This added to the time-consuming nature of the application. Gathering documentation could also be costly, such as the cost of getting their qualifications assessed through NZQA’s International Qualification Assessment.

“Contacting them was a nightmare, plus the fees were exorbitant given you have a teacher shortage.”
OTT

OTTs commented that the application process could continue even when they had arrived in New Zealand. In the survey and case study findings this included waiting for their salary assessment to be completed so they could be placed on the appropriate pay scale. This caused additional stress as they were initially on a pay scale for teachers with no recognised teacher education.

“As an OTT you are not told that you get paid as an unqualified teacher at the start which gives you a lot of upfront costs that you cannot cover. The process took two months for me.”
OTT

“Took multiple attempts to become properly assessed. Was left on an untrained, unqualified salary status for a long time which was not helpful given the costs associated with relocating. Principal had to intervene numerous times and call Novopay [Education Payroll] and correct them as they kept issuing incorrect statements. Was placed on the wrong step of the salary scale 4 times. An absolute nightmare to deal with.”
OTT

Almost all principals had an active role in the recruitment process

At least 90 percent of principals were involved in checking, shortlisting, interviewing candidates, and making employment offer(s) to successful candidate(s). The principals who had used a recruitment agency to hire an OTT also played a significant role in the recruitment process.

Most principals (82 percent), including those who used a recruitment agency or recruited directly, assisted their OTT(s) with one or more government agency to make sure all the requirements were met. Assisting with salary assessment was the most common, with over two-thirds of principals providing support (see Figure 4). Principals were required as part of the salary assessment process to sign OTT’s application form, attest their relevant experience and certify their documents.

Figure 4: Over half of all principals assisted their OTT(s) with salary assessment and/or registration and certification  

Assisted with:

% of principals

Salary assessment

67

Registration and certification

53

Visa application

47

Qualification assessment

31

 

Some insights from principals included the challenge of the time taken to process applications.

“All the paperwork. I have just hired one, not through an agency, and am really concerned about whether he will get through it all without support and be here in February. However, I have had to hire two overseas teachers for next year for Maths and Science and one this year for Maths. We waited 6 months for our one this year and it really impacted on learning in the school.”
Principal

The leaders in the case study felt the recruitment phase placed a substantial time burden on their school.

“…the whole recruitment thing, I was pulling my hair out. The recruitment was a massive challenge. Most of it was over the holidays. Here I was in Vietnam trying to do salary assessments off my phone.”
Principal

Principals and OTTs felt they needed more support

Too many OTTs were missing out on PLD because awareness of these opportunities was limited. Almost one-third of OTTs did not attend any of the workshops. Some insights from these OTTs included them not being aware workshops were offered, or that they had started at their school later in the year and missed the workshops offered in Terms 1 and/or 2. Few OTTs chose not to attend the workshop(s) they were offered. There was no significant difference in awareness of workshops between the OTTs who were recruited by their school and those recruited through an agency (calculated using a chi-square test. The significance level for all statistical testing in this report was p < 0.05.)

 “I had just started working, and in my first week the principal forwarded the information to me. However, it was too late, and I could not attend as I received the email on the day of the last session of this workshop. It would be more helpful to offer this through the Teaching Council to teachers registered as OTTs, rather than through schools.”
OTT

OTTs could also access webinars and modules, though the uptake and awareness of these was lower than the workshops. Only about half of OTTs accessed the webinars or the modules.

At least 80 percent of OTTs who attended the Ministry funded workshops felt they met their needs well. Fewer OTTs felt the webinars and modules met their needs (see Figure 5).

Figure 5: A higher percentage of OTTs found the workshops useful, compared to the webinars and modules     

The graph shows 5 forms of professional development the Ministry of Education has on offer for OTTs.

The graph shows 5 forms of professional development the Ministry of Education has on offer for OTTs. The bars are split for where PD meet their needs ‘Very well’ + ‘Well’, compared to ‘Not well’ + ‘Not at all well’.  

Eighty-two percent of OTTs felt workshop 1 fit their needs; eighty-five percent felt workshop 2 fit their needs; eighty percent felt workshop 3 fit their needs ; seventy-one percent felt the online PLD module fit their needs; sixty percent felt the webinars fit their needs.

 

                                                                                                          

Too many principals had limited, if any, knowledge of the PLD available to OTTs (see Figure 6). They were particularly unaware of the online opportunities (modules and webinars) available. There was again no significant difference in awareness of the PLD opportunities available for OTTs between principals who had recruited an OTT directly, compared to those who used a recruitment agency.

“I wonder how I was to know about the courses mentioned in this survey for our OTT. I did contact our local Ministry office and was given a mentorship programme requirement with no indication that other support was available. As an experienced principal of seven years I find this incredible. When are we going to be properly supported and not expected to go searching through the labyrinth of sites for appropriate support?”
Principal

Also of concern was the fact that around a third of principals who knew about the support available failed to offer it to their OTTs.

Figure 6: Limited uptake of PLD was often because many principals did not offer it to their OTTs              

OTT

% of all principals who did not offer PLD to their OTTs

% of principals aware of PLD but did not offer it to OTTs

% of principals not aware of PLD

OTT Workshop 1

68

32

36

OTT Workshop 2

54

25

29

OTT Workshop 3

58

27

31

Online Modules

58

17

41

Webinars

63

20

43

 

Schools provided internal support for their OTT(s). The most common support OTTs identified was a mentor. In the preliminary case study school, the mentor supported their OTT with The NZC, learning progressions, assessment tools and assessment practices.

Sixty-three percent of OTTs indicated they would appreciate further internal or external support. Areas suggested for further support were: understanding The NZC and/or NCEA; cultural competency; and behaviour management.

Principals identified the additional pressure placed on staff and resources when hiring an OTT. These principals had commented that their OTTs required less support over time, or felt the school needed to continue supporting their OTT in adjusting to requirements.

Leaders in the case study school had their board support them by contracting a specialist to guide leadership and management associated with hiring many OTTs. Leaders were also grateful for the 0.1 FTTE release to support their OTTs, although they thought this insufficient. They topped up this support with resources from their operational funding to provide release time to their OTTs for induction and the PLD they felt was necessary.

“A challenge is having what is essentially a PCT [beginning teacher] without the support or release time to support them effectively.”
Principal

Most OTTs felt they had adjusted well to being a teacher in New Zealand

Eighty-four percent of OTTs felt they had adjusted well to The NZC content, and 85 percent to the pedagogy. Insights from OTTs included the benefit of teaching in New Zealand, especially the flexibility of the curriculum, which allows teachers to explore new approaches to tailor their classroom programmes.

“I like the fact that you are allowed to focus on the needs of your class and your skills as a teacher, rather than everyone having to teach the same.”
OTT

The workshops offered on The NZC did not seem to make a significant difference for OTTs. OTTs who attended one or both of the workshops on The NZC did not feel any better adjusted to the curriculum content than those OTTs who had not attended any workshops.

Not all OTTs found adjusting to expectations of The NZC easy

Almost half of the OTTs (44 percent of our sample) came from a teaching background where the curriculum is more prescriptive, and the pedagogy more didactic. These OTTs were generally more used to teaching from the front of the class and less experienced at promoting student agency. Seventy- eight percent of these OTTs felt they had adjusted to The NZC content, compared to 91 percent in the remainder of the sample.

They were more likely to find the change to a more flexible curriculum and pedagogy challenging and this impacted negatively on their work-life balance. Only 54 percent of these OTTs felt they had adjusted well to a work-life balance, compared to 81 percent in the remainder of the sample. The difference between this group and the other half of OTTs was statistically significant.

Insights from OTTs outlined the difference from the teaching practice they had been used to.

“Coming from knowing exactly what to teach in the classroom and basically being spoon-fed, ‘This is what you should have achieved by the end of this term’ or whatever the case may be. To coming here where it’s completely open. My struggle being here at the moment is exactly that – the freedom. I know that sounds strange, but I’m really finding that a challenge, and it gets me very anxious.”
OTT

OTTs in the case study also found working with The NZC challenging. The ‘lack of structure’ in The NZC was a source of anxiety for some of the OTTs.

OTTs enjoyed working with learners, though their behaviour and cultural norms had been identified as challenges

Almost all OTTs (97 percent) felt they were developing good relationships with their students and their parents. Insights from OTTs were about how welcoming students were and that they enjoyed learning about the students’ diverse cultures. Eighty-five percent of OTTs felt they had adjusted to these diverse cultures.

“I loved working with the learners in my class and learning more about them and their culture. I formed a bond quickly with my class and enjoy seeing them learn and grow.”
OTT

Some insights from OTTs were also about the challenging behaviour of students, and what they perceived as students’ lack of work ethic.

“A challenge is the lack of respect and discipline of the kids. I am shocked to see how kids speak to teachers and adults, along with their lack of desire to learn.”
OTT

OTTs from the case study said they were still getting used to other aspects of children’s behaviour which are familiar to New Zealand teachers. One OTT disliked being told by a student that sitting on tables was tapu, while others had difficulty appreciating that making eye contact with an adult talking to you was not a cultural norm for some children.

OTTs do not fully appreciate the implications of the Treaty of Waitangi and Tikanga Māori

While over half of OTTs felt they understood the Treaty of Waitangi – fewer (44 percent) OTTs felt they had a good understanding of the implications of the Treaty of Waitangi on their practice. OTTs who commented on the implications of the Treaty of Waitangi on their practice identified the importance of understanding the obligations under the Treaty and the value of learning to use te reo Māori. However, some of the responses OTTs gave talked about all cultures, which suggests that these teachers had not fully appreciated the bicultural nature of the Treaty of Waitangi.

“Teachers and children are expected to respect all cultures and allow opportunities for these cultures to be shared. Everyone is encouraged to be proud of their culture.”
OTT

A third of OTTs felt they did not have a good sense of the implications of Treaty of Waitangi on their practice. A few OTTs commented they had not yet had a chance to investigate the Treaty of Waitangi.

Fifty-four percent of OTTs felt they understood the impact of tikanga Māori when interacting with Māori students. The workshop on Te Reo Māori, tikanga Māori and culturally responsive teaching helped OTTs better understand the impact of tikanga Māori. There was a statistically significant difference in OTTs who attended this workshop (61 percent), compared to those who did not (40 percent), and how well they felt they understood the implications of tikanga Māori.

The statements by the OTTs are similar to the perceptions of principals. Insights from principals included the challenge of helping OTTs come to terms with the cultures of New Zealand students. Half of the principals felt their OTTs did not have a good understanding of tikanga Māori or the Treaty of Waitangi. Only a third felt their OTTs understood tikanga Māori, and fewer (28 percent) felt their OTT(s) understood the implications of the Treaty of Waitangi.

Most principals felt their OTT(s) settled well into working in New Zealand

Aspects of teaching practice which principals felt their OTTs had adjusted to included working with The NZC content, their pedagogy, planning and assessment, behaviour management, and their relationships with students, parents and co-workers (see Figure 7). While the data shows that most OTTs settled in well against each aspect, individual OTTs had not necessarily adjusted well to all aspects. Seventy percent of principals felt their OTTs had adjusted well to all these aspects.

Figure 7: Most principals felt their OTTs had settled well

The graph shows aspects of practices principals were asked about how well they felt their OTTs had adjusted to.

The graph shows aspects of practices principals were asked about how well they felt their OTTs had adjusted to. These are ordered by which the highest proportion of principals felt OTTs had adjusted to ‘Well’ or ‘Very well’. The percentages of principal:

Ninety‑eight percent felt their OTTs had developed relationships with their co-workers.

Eighty-eighty percent felt their OTTs had adjusted to planning and assessment.

Eighty-seven percent felt their OTTs had adjusted to the culture of their students

Eighty-four percent felt they had adjusted to the relationship with students and parents

Eighty-two percent felt they had adjusted to the NZC content

Seventy-eight percent felt their OTTs had adjusted to the pedagogy

Seventy-six percent felt they had adjusted to behaviour management.

Although most principals felt that their OTTs had developed good relationships with students and whānau, a few commented that their OTTs still needed to understand the importance of these connections.

“A challenge has been helping them to become accepted by the students and whānau and helping them to understand the importance of these relationships in New Zealand and for Pasifika and Māori families.”
Principal

Despite recognising that their OTTs had mostly adjusted to teaching in New Zealand, insights from principals on the challenge of hiring an OTT included providing sufficient support for their OTTs and the time taken to help them adjust to New Zealand teaching practice.

OTTs identified a range of highlights and challenges in adjusting to living in New Zealand

The most common highlight was the natural environment. OTTs appreciated the scenery, cleanliness, and being able to easily access a range of outdoor activities. OTTs also valued the people of New Zealand, including their friendliness, lifestyle and diverse cultures. Other highlights of living in New Zealand included the safety and the well-resourced public services.

“In New Zealand you can walk home from work or just take a walk in your city or town and not be afraid (as a woman or a man) to just walk, feel the sun on your skin, feel the breeze, hear the birds, and arrive safely to your location.
I have lived on this earth for 24 years, and I am going to learn how to ride a bicycle! And I cannot forget the people. You Kiwis know how to make a person feel loved and welcomed into your whānau. These are my favourite things about New Zealand.”

OTT

The most commonly identified challenge for OTTs was the cost of living. Most of these OTTs identified the cost of living in general, and a third singled out the cost of housing and rent.

“House prices in Auckland are a real challenge. I moved with my partner who needs to be in Auckland for work and home ownership is an aspiration we’ve had to drop completely. We have enough for a deposit however cannot afford the mortgage repayments and maintain any sort of life outside work.”
OTT

The second most common challenge of OTTs was being away from family and friends in their home country and feeling isolated.

“We left our entire family back home, so we have been lonely and making new friends has been difficult.”
OTT

The above was also corroborated in the case study. OTTs in the case study school felt it could take time for them to adjust to working and living in New Zealand. The pressures of adjusting to a new way of teaching could affect their wellbeing. These OTTs felt they did not have adequate support and encouragement. The case study school was exceptional in that over half of their staff were OTTs. This would put considerable strain on any school. However, every school would have to take into account the additional workload inducting multiple OTTs.

Principals commented on a range of benefits to hiring an OTT

Principals identified the benefit of getting qualified and experienced teachers into classrooms. They appreciated that their OTTs were willing to learn about how to be a teacher in New Zealand. About one-fifth of principals commented that a benefit of hiring an OTT was that the school could learn from their different experience and cultures.

“They are determined and dedicated. They provide a different perspective, and diversity is a strength. Our new teachers are an asset to our school.”
Principal

The preliminary case study school had initiated a review of the school’s culture, what they wanted to retain, and what they could incorporate from OTTs.

“It has been a good opportunity for the school to review the way we do things and revisit what is important, what should underpin learning at our school, such as the principles of The NZC. Most of our international teachers have subject specific qualifications. This has been helpful for the school – we have learnt from them as well!”
Principal

Of concern were comments from about one- fifth of principals that the advantage of hiring an OTT was simply having a teacher in a classroom.

“The benefit of hiring an OTT is being able to fill teaching vacancies, which are hard to fill in the current climate. Our preference will always be New Zealand trained teachers.”
Principal

Discussion

OTT recruitment is a government response to the teacher supply shortage and has clearly been effective in addressing some of the teacher shortfall. This evaluation shows that most OTTs seem to have adjusted well to most aspects of settling and teaching in New Zealand but there were issues in the recruitment process, provision of support and adjustment to practice.

This evaluation highlights areas that have worked well for some OTTs and principals and some points for consideration. It is these latter points that form part of the discussion, with the view to informing improvements in the initiative.

Enhance co-ordination and communication of processes

Because teaching is a licensed occupation there are associated regulatory requirements and therefore it is even more important that schools be provided upfront clear information and expectations from the various service agencies involved. Consideration should be given to providing school leadership with more comprehensive information about the whole recruitment process. This will help schools be clear about what:

  • they can expect the process with the recruitment agencies to look like
  • they need to do – whether or not they are using a recruitment agency
  • the requirements are for visa application, registration and certification, qualification approval, and salary assessment
  • external support is available for their new teachers
  • their eligibility is for additional funding and allowances – to support schools
  • human and financial commitments are involved in recruiting, inducting and supporting OTTs.

It would be helpful if the recruitment processes could start earlier, so that the government agencies’ requirements are fulfilled before the teachers take up their positions in schools. Beginning this process earlier could also allow for more intensive induction, settlement and acclimatisation of OTTs. By starting earlier, principals’ involvement in supporting the OTTs through processes could be minimised.

The start of recruitment is, however, dependent on the time when principals find they are unable to recruit locally and initiate overseas recruitment. This can compress the time available for the whole recruitment process. This means prospective OTTs are only at the stage of being available to interview and have not started any of the agencies’ processes. We know there is a pool of identified teachers who are at this ‘available to interview’ stage. It could be worth exploring if this pool could be turned into a pre-approved pool of OTTs, for example whose qualifications have had prior approval.

It could be useful to have clear definitions of the Ministry’s expectations of the role recruitment agencies take in the recruitment process and providing post-placement support, if any. However, this was not an area ERO explored in this report.

Increase OTTs awareness of and access to appropriate PLD opportunities

Principals and OTTs would benefit from improved communication, during the recruitment process, to raise awareness of all available support. This should ensure OTTs and their principals know of, and can plan for, support before they arrive. Resources including introductions to teaching expectations in New Zealand (such as The NZC and the Treaty of Waitangi), webinars and modules could be available earlier, including during the recruitment process. Offering all three workshops each term would help ensure OTTs who arrive later in the school year do not miss out on the opportunity to attend.

Ensure support is New Zealand context specific and responsive to the needs of OTTs

PLD provision should be evaluated as to whether it meets the needs of OTTs and considers the impact of changes in curriculum expectations.

PLD on the Treaty of Waitangi and tikanga Māori is an area where OTTs may need additional support. While just over half of OTTs felt they understood the Treaty of Waitangi, new requirements to teach this as part of New Zealand history by 2022 could create additional pressure for schools to make sure OTTs are well prepared. This need for PLD is supported by principals’ observations where only a third felt their OTT(s) understood tikanga Māori, and fewer (28 percent) felt their OTT(s) understood the implications of the Treaty of Waitangi.

Almost half of the OTTs struggled with adjusting to The NZC content. This challenge is not unique to OTTs. ERO’s 2019 report ‘Developing Key Competencies in Students Years 1 to 8’ found schools could do more to realise the intentions of The NZC.

Special consideration needs to be made when planning to meet the PLD needs of OTTs in these key areas.

To capture the needs of OTTs, consideration should be given to the Ministry establishing feedback loops with OTTs to find what is working, and where further support may be required. The Ministry could link this feedback into the cross-agency group. To support OTTs’ social integration, their wellbeing needs should also be captured. Increasing the frequency and locations for events with groups of OTTs, such as the ‘Introduction to teaching in Aotearoa/ New Zealand’ day, could help support bonding and networking for OTTs.

The focus of this evaluation was on schools. However, government agencies will also need to be responsive to OTTs coming into the early learning sector. As part of the Early Learning Action Plan for 2019-2029, it was proposed that a short-term teacher supply strategy of attracting OTTs into early learning would support the sector through some of the planned changes. While the global pandemic of COVID-19 will likely delay plans to attract OTTs into the early learning sector, their needs can still be considered for when recruitment begins. It is likely these OTTs will have unique needs as they adjust to meeting the requirements of the early learning sector. They may experience similar challenges to OTTs in schools, such as the open-ended nature of New Zealand’s early childhood curriculum, Te Whāriki, along with additional challenges.

Step up support for schools’ preparedness to induct and support OTTs

Schools employing OTTs will have the greatest level of influence over their working conditions, and how they are supported.

Considering almost half of schools had hired more than one OTT, leaders should be supported with initiatives for change leadership when they have hired a significant number of OTTs. Promoting a shift in teaching practices to support OTTs, such as team teaching, could help facilitate greater and more frequent sharing of skills and oversight of practice. Schools could also be provided with support for how they can manage teacher turnover, including what strategies could help address shortages.

Secondary and composite schools receive the overseas teacher time allowance for twice the length of time as primary, intermediate and special schools, despite all teachers requiring support. Consideration should be given to all OTTs receiving equitable time allowances, of at least 20 regardless of the school they are in.

ERO recognises that these are not quick fixes and may involve policy or regulatory changes to put into effect.

Points for consideration

Based on issues identified in our findings, ERO has made the following suggestions for government agencies to better support principals and OTTs.

Streamline recruitment support:

  • enhance coordination between government agencies and smooth the recruitment process for schools and OTTs to minimise the number of OTTs who are still having to complete the process when employed
  • define the optimal role of recruitment agencies in recruitment, placement and post-placement stages
  • promote clear communication to principals and OTTs on what can be expected of the recruitment process.

More support for OTTs:

  • curate pre-departure information for OTTs on settling into New Zealand including clear introduction to:
    • New Zealand way of life, cost of living, linguistic and cultural diversity
    • The NZC, Treaty of Waitangi and tikanga Māori and expectations of teaching practice, for example the concept of ako.
  • consider providing tailored PLD on arrival on The NZC, Treaty of Waitangi and tikanga Māori; and develop this as a standard programme over time.
  • initiate feedback loops with OTTs to gather:
    • whether they know about PLD opportunities and if they fit their needs
    • checks on how they are to settling into New Zealand, including their wellbeing.

Help schools to prepare for OTTs:

  • promote clear communication to schools about available allowances to support OTTs and to ensure equity between school types on duration of the overseas teacher time allowance
  • provide clarity on how schools may choose to support OTTs, such as managing change and exploring different teaching strategies.

Government agency coordination:

  • enhance the role of the cross-agency group to better coordinate provision of information and services
  • transfer lessons learnt on overseas workers from other sectors, for example health workforce and labour mobility programmes
  • if scaling up this programme, then it would be worthwhile to consider:
    • policies like sector-wide agreements to facilitate entry of teacher migrants.
    • a more co-ordinated policy approach across education, workforce and training, immigration and labour policy.

Appendix 1: Survey questions

OTT Survey

Background and consent

Thank you for choosing to respond to this Education Review Office (ERO) survey forwarded to you by your Principal.

ERO is undertaking this evaluation to assess how well overseas trained teachers (OTTs) adapt to working and living in New Zealand. This evaluation, in response to the government’s 2018 announcement of recruitment of OTTs to address teacher shortage, aims to better support long-term policy and planning on areas where more support is needed for OTTs. Through the survey we will seek to understand how overseas trained teachers understand the New Zealand Curriculum and adapt to local classroom and school settings. The evaluation will also touch upon their recruitment and early settlement experiences.

The results will be published but no individual or school will be identified directly or otherwise.

Your data will be destroyed after the completion of the research.

You can choose not to participate in this survey and can ask for your survey responses to be withdrawn at any time.

  1. I have read and understood the purpose of this ERO evaluation and agree to participate
    (Options: ‘Yes’ or ‘No’)
  2. What is the name of your current school?
    (Textbox)
  3. What is the profile number of this school?
    (Textbox)
  4. Gender:
    (Textbox)
  5. Which age bracket do you fall into?
    • 20-24 years
    • 25-29 years
    • 30-39 years
    • 40-49 years
    • 50-59 years
    • 60 years and over
  6. What is the highest qualification you hold?
    • Bachelor’s degree
    • Postgraduate diploma / certificate of education
    • Honour’s degree
    • Master’s degree
    • Other (please specify)
  7. What country did you receive your teaching training in?
    (Textbox)
  8. In what country have you taught the longest in?
    (Textbox)
  9. Is this your first time teaching in New Zealand?
    (Options: ‘Yes’ or ‘No’)
  10. What is the total number of years teaching experience that you have?
    • 1-3 years
    • 4-7 years
    • 8-10 years
    • More than ten years
  11. What was your last employment position held in your last overseas school?
    (Textbox)
  12. If you taught a specific subject area in your last overseas position, what area was this?(Textbox)
  13. What is your current employment status?
    • Permanent full-time
    • Permanent part-time
    • Fixed-term contract full-time
    • Fixed-term contract part-time
    • Other (please specify)
  14. What is the position you have in your current school?
    (Textbox)
  15. If you teach a specific subject area in your current school, what area is this?
    (Textbox)
  16. If you have any areas of expertise other than in a subject area (e.g. special needs teaching) please list them here.
    (Textbox)
  17. Which of the following recruitment agencies did you use to apply for your current role:
    • Randstad Education
    • Education Personnel
    • Oasis Recruitment
    • I did not use a recruitment agency
    • Other (please specify)
  18. We would like to know about your service experience with various agencies you were involved with in your recruitment phase. Please rate your experience with the following parts of the process you underwent to teach in New Zealand.
    (Options to rate each agency: ‘N/A’, ‘Don’t know’, ‘Not at all easy’, ‘Not easy’, ‘Easy’, ‘Very Easy’, and a textbox to comment)
    • Qualification assessment [NZQA]
    • Application [recruiter]
    • Registration and professional certification [Teaching Council]
    • Job application, including school interview [your school]
    • Salary assessment [Education Payroll]
    • Visa application [Immigration New Zealand]
  19. Which of the following induction support resources have you been offered by your school and PLD providers and how well did they meet your needs?
    (Options to rate each provider: ‘Not at all’, ‘Not well’, ‘Well’, ‘Very well’, ‘I am unsure how appropriate’, ‘This has not been offered to me’, ‘This was offered to me but I didn’t attend’, ‘N/A’, and a textbox to comment)
    • OTT Workshop 1 (term 1) Te Reo Māori, Tikanga Māori and Culturally Responsive Teaching
    • OTT Workshop 2 (term 2) Developing Understanding of The NZC
    • OTT Workshop 3 (term 3) Teaching and Learning and The NZC
    • Online PLD modules
    • Webinars
  20. Please list any other forms of induction support offered by your school and PLD providers that were not listed in the previous checklist.
    (Textbox)
  21. Would you appreciate any further support from in, or outside of, your school? If yes, please indicate what support you would appreciate.
    (Options: ‘Yes’ or ‘No’ and a textbox to comment)
  22. How well have you understood and adjusted to the following aspects of teaching in New Zealand?
    (Options to rate aspects of teaching: ‘Don’t know’, ‘Not at all well’, ‘Not well’, ‘Well’, and ‘Very well’)
    • The NZ curriculum content
    • Pedagogy needed to effectively teach in your classroom
    • The cultures of your students
    • Your relationship with students and parents
    • Managing your wellbeing
    • Managing work-life balance
  23. How well do you understand the Treaty of Waitangi?
    • Unsure
    • Not at all
    • Not well
    • Well
    • Very well
    • Could you please explain your reasons for the response you have chosen above. (Textbox)
  24. How well do you understand the implications of the Treaty of Waitangi for your teaching practice?
    • Unsure
    • Not at all
    • Not well
    • Well
    • Very well
    • Could you please explain your reasons for the response you have chosen above.
      (Textbox)
  25. How well do you understand the impact of tikanga* when interacting with Māori students *Tikanga is a Māori concept with a wide range of meanings — culture, custom, ethic, etiquette, fashion, formality, lore, manner, meaning, mechanism, method, protocol, style.
    • Not at all well
    • Not well
    • Well
    • Very well
  26. What have you liked about working in a NZ school?
    (Textbox)
  27.  What have you not liked about working in a NZ school?
    (Textbox)
  28. What are the highlights of living in New Zealand?
    (Textbox)
  29. What are the challenges of living in New Zealand?
    (Textbox)
  30. We may want to contact you in the future. Are you happy to provide your email address to us for this purpose?
    (Options: ‘Yes’ or ‘No’)
  31. Email address
    (Textbox)

Principal survey

Background and consent

Thank you for choosing to respond to this Education Review Office (ERO) survey.

ERO is undertaking this evaluation to assess how well overseas trained teachers (OTTs) adapt to working and living in New Zealand. This evaluation, in response to the government’s 2018 announcement of recruitment of OTTs to address teacher shortage, aims to support long-term policy and planning in areas where more support may be needed for OTTs.

Through the initial survey of OTTs we sought to understand how they understood The New Zealand Curriculum and adapted to local classroom and school settings. The survey also asked about their recruitment and early settlement experiences.

This survey intends to build on the evidence gathered from the first survey. The questions will gather insights from the principals of schools that have employed OTTs about how the teachers were recruited, supported and have adjusted to working in New Zealand.

The findings from the OTT and principal survey will be published in one report. No individual or school will be identified directly or otherwise. Your data will be destroyed after the completion of the evaluation.

You can choose not to participate in this survey and can ask for your survey responses to be withdrawn at any time.

  1. I have read and understood the purpose of this ERO evaluation and agree to participate
    (Options: ‘Yes’ or ‘No’)
  2. What is the name of your school?
    (Textbox)
  3. What is the profile number of your school?
    (Textbox)
  4. How many new to New Zealand teachers has your school hired in the past 12 months?
    (Drop down number box)

The following questions are about the recruitment of new to New Zealand teachers for your school. The questions refer to the principal of your school in general. This is in case you are new to the principal role, and were not involved in the recruitment of your school’s new to New Zealand teachers.

  1. Which of the following reasons apply to your school’s decision to recruit a teacher(s) who is new to New Zealand?
    (Options for each reason: ‘Yes’ or ‘No’)
    • A specific skillset
    • A shortage of applicants from New Zealand
    • A shortage of applicants from our area
    • No reason
    • We did not intentionally hire a teacher new to New Zealand
    • I am unsure
    • Other reason (please specify)
  2. Did your principal hire your new to New Zealand teacher(s) through a recruitment agency?
    • All were hired through a recruitment agency
    • Some were hired through a recruitment agency
    • None were hired through a recruitment agency
  3. How was your principal involved in the recruitment process?
    (Options for ‘Yes’, ‘No’ and ‘NA’)
    • Liaising with the recruitment agency
    • Checking and shortlisting  candidates
    • Interviewing candidates
    • Reference checking candidates
    • Making an employment offer to successful candidates
    • Assisting with salary assessment [Novopay]
    • Assisting with visa application [Immigration New Zealand]
    • Qualification assessment [NZQ
    • Registration and professional certification [Teaching Council]

The following questions are about the placement of new to New Zealand teachers, and how they have adjusted to your school.

  1. Which of the following support, funded by the Ministry of Education, have been offered to, and/or attended by, your new to New Zealand teachers?
    (Options for each workshop: ‘Not offered’, ‘Offered’, ‘Offered and attended by some’, ‘Offered and attended by all’, ‘I am unsure’, and ‘I was not aware of this’)
    • OTT Workshop 1 (term 1) Te Reo Māori, Tikanga Māori and Culturally Responsive Teaching
    • OTT Workshop 2 (term 2) Developing Understanding of The NZC
    • OTT Workshop 3 (term 3) Teaching and Learning and The NZC
    • Online PLD modules
    • Webinars
    • Other support offered e.g. a mentor or a buddy
      (Textbox)
  2. In your view, how well have your new to New Zealand teachers understood and adjusted to the following aspects of teaching in New Zealand?
    (Options for each aspect of teaching: ‘I am unsure’, ‘Not at all well’, ‘Not well’, ‘Well’, and ‘Very well’)
    • New Zealand Curriculum content
    • Pedagogy
    • Planning and assessment
    • Behaviour management
    • The cultures of their students
    • The relationship with their students and parents
    • The relationship with their co-workers
    • Managing wellbeing
    • Managing work-life balance
    • Do you have any further comments about how your new to New Zealand teachers have adjusted to teaching in New Zealand?
      (Textbox)
  3. In your view, how well do your new to New Zealand teachers understand the Treaty of Waitangi?
    • I am unsure
    • Not at all
    • Not well
    • Well
    • Very well
  4. In your view, how well do your new to New Zealand teachers understand tikanga when interacting with Māori students?
    • I am unsure
    • Not at all
    • Not well
    • Well
    • Very well
  5. What has/have been the benefit(s) of hiring a new to New Zealand teacher?
    (Textbox)
  6. What has/have been the challenge(s) of hiring a new to New Zealand teacher?
    (Textbox)
  7. Do you intend to hire additional overseas trained teachers in the next 12 months?
    (Options: ‘Yes’, ‘Possibly’ and ‘No’)
  8. Do you have any further comments?
    (Textbox)

Appendix 2: Terms of Quantity

Terms used

Percentage

All

100%

Almost all

91%-99%

Most

75%-90%

Many, majority

50%-74%

Some

15%-49%

A few

less than 15%

Appendix 3: OTT survey responses

Respondent school characteristics

Location

Urban/rural area

Frequency

Percent (%)

Main urban area

102

72

Secondary urban area

15

11

Minor urban area

13

9

Rural

12

8

Total

142

100

School type

School type

Frequency

Percent (%)

Full primary (Year 1-8)

25

18

Contributing (Year 1-6)

34

24

Intermediate (Year 7-8)

22

15

Composite (Year 1-15)

9

6

Secondary (Year 7-15)

7

5

Secondary (Year 9-15)

37

26

Special School

8

6

Total

142

100

Region

Region

Frequency

Percent (%)

Auckland Region

75

52

Bay of Plenty Region

4

3

Canterbury Region

13

9

Gisborne Region

2

1

Hawke’s Bay Region

4

3

Manawatu-Wanganui Region

3

2

Marlborough Region

2

1

Northland Region

1

1

Otago Region

4

3

Southland Region

1

1

Taranaki Region

5

4

Waikato Region

8

6

Wellington Region

18

13

West coast Region

2

1

Total

142

100

Decile

Decile group

Frequency

Percent (%)

Low decile

42

30

Mid decile

41

29

High decile

59

41

Total

142

100

OTT survey responses

Q4. Gender

Gender

Frequency

Percent (%)

Female

102

72

Male

38

28

Total

140

100

Q5. Which age bracket do you fit into?

Age bracket

Frequency

Percent (%)

20-24 years

4

3

25-29 years

46

32

30-39 years

58

41

40-49 years

27

19

50-59 years

8

5

Total

143

100

Q6. What is the highest qualification you hold?

Highest qualification

Frequency

Percent (%)

Bachelor’s degree

48

34

Post graduate diploma/ Certificate of education

45

32

Honour’s degree

29

20

Master’s degree

14

10

Other

6

4

Total

142

100

Q7. In what country did you receive your teachers training?

Country

Frequency

Percent (%)

Australia

6

4

Canada

7

5

UK

32

22

Chile

1

1

Fiji

11

8

India

2

1

Ireland

5

4

Malaysia

1

1

New Zealand

2

2

Philippines

3

2

South Africa

66

46

USA

5

3

Zimbabwe

2

1

Total

143

100

Q8. In what country have you taught the longest?

Country

Frequency

Percent (%)

Australia

5

3

Canada

4

3

UK

33

23

Chile

1

1

Fiji

11

8

India

1

1

Ireland

4

3

Malaysia

1

1

New Zealand

5

4

Philippines

2

1

South Africa

64

44

USA

5

3

UAE

2

1

Singapore

1

1

Spain

1

1

Thailand

2

1

Qatar

1

1

Total

143

100

Q9. Is this your first time teaching in New Zealand?

First time teaching

Frequency

Percent (%)

Yes

139

98

No

3

2

Total

142

100

Q10. What is the total number of years teaching experience that you have?

Teaching experience

Frequency

Percent (%)

1-3 years

32

23

4-7 years

45

32

8-10 years

19

13

More than 10 years

46

32

Total

142

100

Q13. What is your current employment status?

Employment status

Frequency

Percent (%)

Permanent full time

101

71

Fixed-term contract full-time

41

28

Fixed-term contract part-time

1

1

Total

143

100

Q17. Which of the following recruitment agencies did you use

Recruitment agencies

Frequency

Percent (%)

Education Personnel

44

31

Oasis Recruitment

6

4

Randstad Education

19

13

Other

9

6

I did not use a recruitment agency

65

46

Total

143

100

Q18a. Rate your experiences with various agencies

Qualification assessment [NZQA]

Frequency

Percent (%)

Not at all easy

14

12

Not easy

25

21

Easy

56

47

Very Easy

24

20

Total

119

100

Q18b.

Application [recruiter]

Frequency

Percent (%)

Not at all easy

7

8

Not easy

10

11

Easy

46

49

Very Easy

30

32

Total

93

100

Q18c.

Registration and professional certification [Teaching Council]

Frequency

Percent (%)

Not at all easy

30

21

Not easy

42

30

Easy

53

38

Very Easy

16

11

Total

141

100

Q18d.

Job application, including school interview [your school]

Frequency

Percent (%)

Not at all easy

5

4

Not easy

13

9

Easy

81

57

Very Easy

43

30

Total

142

100

Q18e.

Salary assessment [Novopay]

Frequency

Percent (%)

Not at all easy

52

37

Not easy

38

27

Easy

39

28

Very Easy

11

8

Total

140

100

Q18f.

Visa application [Immigration New Zealand]

Frequency

Percent (%)

Not at all easy

18

14

Not easy

35

28

Easy

55

43

Very Easy

20

15

Total

128

100

Q19a. Which of the following induction support resources have you been offered by your school and PLD providers and how well did they meet your needs?

OTT Workshop 1 (term 1) Te Reo Māori, Tikanga Māori and Culturally Responsive Teaching

Frequency

Percent (%)

Not at all

9

7

Not well

1

1

Well

25

19

Very well

22

17

I am unsure how appropriate

5

4

This has not been offered to me

38

30

This was offered to me but I didn’t attend

3

2

N/A

27

21

Total

130

100

Q19b.

OTT Workshop 2 (term 2) Developing Understanding of The NZC

Frequency

Percent (%)

Not at all

7

6

Not well

4

3

Well

38

29

Very well

25

19

I am unsure how appropriate

3

2

This has not been offered to me

30

24

This was offered to me but I didn’t attend

5

4

N/A

17

13

Total

129

100

Q19c.

OTT Workshop 3 (term 3) Teaching and Learning and The NZC

Frequency

Percent (%)

Not at all

7

5

Not well

7

5

Well

31

24

Very well

25

19

I am unsure how appropriate

2

2

This has not been offered to me

37

28

This was offered to me but I didn’t attend

10

8

N/A

12

9

Total

131

100

Q19d

Online PLD modules

Frequency

Percent (%)

Not at all

9

8

Not well

7

6

Well

23

20

Very well

17

14

I am unsure how appropriate

8

7

This has not been offered to me

41

34

This was offered to me but I didn’t attend

2

2

N/A

11

9

Total

118

100

Q19e

Webinars

Frequency

Percent (%)

Not at all

10

8

Not well

7

6

Well

19

16

Very well

7

6

I am unsure how appropriate

6

5

This has not been offered to me

52

44

This was offered to me but I didn’t attend

4

3

N/A

14

12

Total

119

100

Q21. Would you appreciate any further support from in, or outside of, your school?

Response

Frequency

Percent (%)

Yes

82

63

No

48

37

Total

130

100

Q22a. How well have you understood and adjusted to the following aspects of teaching in New Zealand?

NZ curriculum content

Frequency

Percent (%)

Not at all well

1

1

Not well

20

15

Well

97

72

Very well

17

13

Total

135

100

Q22b.

Pedagogy needed to effectively teach in your classroom

Frequency

Percent (%)

Not well

20

15

Well

85

63

Very well

30

22

Total

135

100

Q22c.

The cultures of your students

Frequency

Percent (%)

Don’t know

2

1

Not at all well

1

1

Not well

18

13

Well

90

67

Very well

24

18

Total

         135

100

Q22d.

Your relationship with students and parents

Frequency

Percent (%)

Not at all well

1

1

Not well

2

2

Well

75

55

Very well

57

42

Total

135

100

Q22e.

Managing your wellbeing

Frequency

Percent (%)

Not at all well

5

4

Not well

37

27

Well

69

51

Very well

24

18

Total

135

100

Q22f.

Managing work-life balance

Frequency

Percent (%)

Not at all well

10

7

Not well

33

24

Well

67

50

Very well

25

19

Total

135

100

Q23. How well do you understand the Treaty of Waitangi?

Response

Frequency

Percent (%)

Unsure

14

10

Not at all

8

6

Not well

43

32

Well

61

45

Very well

9

7

Total

135

100

Q24. How well do you understand the implications of the Treaty of Waitangi for your teaching practice?

Response

Frequency

Percent (%)

Unsure

24

18

Not at all well

13

10

Not well

37

28

Well

51

39

Very well

6

5

Total

131

100

Q25. How well do you understand the impact of tikanga* when interacting with Māori students

Response

Frequency

Percent (%)

Not at all well

18

13

Not well

43

32

Well

62

47

Very well

11

8

Total

134

100

Appendix 4: Principal survey responses

Respondent school characteristics

Location

Urban/rural area

Frequency

Percent (%)

Main urban area

43

81

Secondary urban area

3

6

Minor urban area

3

6

Rural area

4

7

Total

53

100

School type

School type

Frequency

Percent (%)

Full primary (Year 1-8)

11

21

Contributing (Year 1-6)

19

36

Intermediate (Year 7-8)

7

13

Composite (Year 1-15)

1

2

Secondary (Year 7-15)

2

4

Secondary (Year 9-15)

9

17

Special School

4

7

Total

53

100

Region

Region

Frequency

Percent (%)

Auckland Region

26

49

Bay of Plenty Region

1

2

Canterbury Region

4

7

Gisborne Region

1

2

Hawke’s Bay Region

3

6

Manawatu-Wanganui Region

1

2

Northland Region

1

2

Taranaki Region

2

4

Waikato Region

5

9

Wellington Region

8

15

West coast Region

1

2

Total

53

100

Decile

Decile group

               Frequency

Percent (%)

Low decile

21

40

Mid decile

18

34

High decile

14

26

Total

53

100

School size

School roll

Frequency

Percent (%)

Small

5

9

Medium

17

32

Large

20

38

Very large

11

21

Total

53

100

Survey responses

Q4. How many new to New Zealand teachers has your school hired in the past 12 months?

Number of teachers

Frequency

Percent (%)

1

28

52

2

16

30

3

3

6

4

3

6

5

1

2

6

1

2

13

1

2

Total

53

100

Q5a. Reason for recruiting an OTT

A specific skillset

Frequency

Percent (%)

Yes

23

58

No

17

42

Total

40

100

Q5b.

 A shortage of NZ applicants

Frequency

Percent (%)

Yes

49

98

No

1

2

Total

50

100

Q5c.

A shortage of applicants from our area

 

Frequency

Percent (%)

Yes

34

94

No

2

6

Total

36

100

Q5d.

No reason

Frequency

Percent (%)

Yes

0

0

No

17

100

Total

17

100

Q5e.

Did not intentionally hire an OTT

Frequency

Percent (%)

Yes

12

50

No

12

50

Total

24

100

Q5f.

I am unsure

Frequency

Percent (%)

Yes

0

0

No

17

100

Total

17

100

Q6. Did your principal hire your new to New Zealand teacher(s) through a recruitment agency?

OTT hired through recruitment agency

Frequency

Percent (%)

All

22

43

Some

19

36

None

11

21

Total

52

100

Q7a. How was your principal involved in the recruitment process?

Liaising with the recruitment agency

Frequency

Percent (%)

Yes

34

72

No

3

7

N/A

10

21

Total

47

100

Q7b.

Checking and shortlisting candidates

Frequency

Percent (%)

Yes

47

92

No

2

4

N/A

2

4

Total

51

100

Q7c.

Interviewing candidates

Frequency

Percent (%)

Yes

48

94

No

2

4

N/A

1

2

Total

51

100

Q7d.

 Reference checking candidates

Frequency

Percent (%)

Yes

40

83

No

7

15

N/A

1

2

Total

48

100

Q7e.

Making an employment offer to successful candidates

Frequency

Percent (%)

Yes

50

98

No

0

0

N/A

1

2

Total

51

100

Q7f.

Assisting with salary assessment [Novopay]

Frequency

Percent (%)

Yes

34

69

No

14

29

N/A

1

2

Total

49

100

Q7g.

Assisting with visa application [Immigration New Zealand]

Frequency

Percent (%)

Yes

24

49

No

21

43

N/A

4

8

Total

49

100

Q7h.

Qualification assessment [NZQA]

Frequency

Percent (%)

Yes

16

35

No

26

59

N/A

2

5

Total

44

100

Q7i.

Registration and professional certification [Teaching Council]

Frequency

Percent (%)

Yes

27

58

No

19

40

N/A

1

2

Total

47

100

Q8a. Which of the following support, funded by the Ministry of Education, have been offered to, and/or attended by, your new to New Zealand teachers?

OTT Workshop 1(term 1)
Te Reo Māori, Tikanga Māori and Culturally Responsive Teaching

Frequency

Percent (%)

Not offered

15

32

Offered

1

2

Offered and attended by some

4

9

Offered and attended by all

7

15

I am unsure

3

6

I was not aware of this

17

36

Total

47

100

Q8b.

OTT Workshop 2(term 2)
Developing Understanding of The NZC

Frequency

Percent (%)

Not offered

12

25

Offered

6

13

Offered and attended by some

4

8

Offered and attended by all

10

21

I am unsure

2

4

I was not aware of this

14

29

Total

48

100

Q8c.

OTT Workshop 3 (Term 3)
Teaching and Learning and The NZC

Frequency

Percent (%)

Not offered

13

27

Offered

6

13

Offered and attended by some

3

6

Offered and attended by all

9

19

I am unsure

2

4

I was not aware of this

15

31

Total

48

100

Q8d.

Online PLD modules

Frequency

Percent (%)

Not offered

8

18

Offered

5

11

Offered and attended by some

1

2

Offered and attended by all

7

15

I am unsure

6

13

I was not aware of this

19

41

Total

46

100

Q8e.

Webinars

Frequency

Percent (%)

Not offered

9

20

Offered

3

7

Offered and attended by some

2

5

Offered and attended by all

3

7

I am unsure

8

18

I was not aware of this

19

43

Total

44

100

Q9a. How well have your new to New Zealand teachers understood and adjusted to the following aspects of teaching in New Zealand?

New Zealand Curriculum content

Frequency

Percent (%)

I am unsure

1

2

Not at all well

2

4

Not well

7

14

Well

35

70

Very well

5

10

Total

50

100

Q9b.

Pedagogy

Frequency

Percent (%)

Not at all well

3

6

Not well

8

16

Well

28

56

Very well

11

22

Total

50

100

Q9c.

Planning and assessment

Frequency

Percent (%)

Not at all well

2

4

Not well

4

8

Well

38

78

Very well

5

10

Total

49

100

Q9d.

Behaviour management

Frequency

Percent (%)

Not at all well

3

6

Not well

9

18

Well

26

52

Very well

12

24

Total

50

100

Q9e.

The cultures of their students

Frequency

Percent (%)

I am unsure

2

4

Not at all well

1

2

Not well

5

10

Well

36

74

Very well

2

10

Total

46

100

Q9f.

The relationship with their students and parents

Frequency

Percent (%)

Not at all well

1

2

Not well

7

14

Well

32

64

Very well

10

20

Total

50

100

Q9g.

The relationship with their co-workers

Frequency

Percent (%)

Not well

1

2

Well

22

44

Very well

27

54

Total

50

100

Q9h.

Managing wellbeing

 

Frequency

Percent (%)

I am unsure

3

6

Not well

5

10

Well

34

68

Very well

8

16

Total

50

100

Q9i.

Managing work-life balance

Frequency

Percent (%)

I am unsure

5

10

Not well

6

12

Well

33

66

Very well

6

12

Total

50

100

Q10. In your view, how well do your new to New Zealand teachers understand the Treaty of Waitangi?

Understanding

Frequency

Percent (%)

I am unsure

11

22

Not at all

4

8

Not well

21

42

Well

14

28

Total

50

100

Q11. In your view, how well do your new to New Zealand teachers understand tikanga when interacting with Māori students?

Understanding

Frequency

Percent (%)

I am unsure

7

14

Not at all

1

2

Not well

25

51

Well

16

33

Total

49

100

Q14. Do you intend to hire additional overseas trained teachers in the next 12 months?

Intention

Frequency

Percent (%)

Yes

8

16

Possibly

27

54

No

15

30

Total

50

100

Publication Information and Copyright

Overseas Trained Teachers: Adjusting to living and working in New Zealand

Published June 2020

© Crown  copyright

Education Evaluation Reports

ISBN 978-1-99-000232-8

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